X-BASIC Reference Manual

Statement and function nameType


  • It is the writing of commands and functions.
  • Items that are highlighted in red bold are data and arguments that are required.
  • Items enclosed in [] are optional.
  • … is repetition of similar. It represents input of data and arguments.
  • (Symbols such as (), {}, [] are reserved words) other characters must be entered exactly as shown.
  • As a general rule, please put space between the instruction and data name for command or statement. In addition, please do not put space between the left parenthesis enclosing the function name and arguments.


  • It is the writing of commands and functions that can be omitted. It should be noted that arguments, brackets, etc. can not be omitted.


  • Represents what type of argument a function needs as a general rule.
  • There are four data types. Functions that require more than one type of argument are summarized in parentheses according to each data type.
    • int, char, float (numeric type)
    • str (character type)
  • Anything valid is referred to as numeric type as long as it is a numeric type.
  • In addition, in special cases (in the case of array the dimension must also be stated) the argument variable must be stated as name or array (not constant, expression, etc. and arguments).


  • The type of the written return value for all functions.
  • int, char, float, str have no return values (including the case where the return value does not exist).


  • Explains the meaning of arguments and the function of each instruction and function.

  • Related instructions and syntax references.

Use cases:

  • Simple sample programs and examples.


Standard function
Written expressions:abs(n)
Return value:float
Function: Returns the absolute value of a number n.
Use cases:


Written expressions:apage(pa)
Function:Specifies the active page pa of the graphic screen (active page to read and write in the graphics screen).
Page number can be 0-3, the maximum value depends on the actual screen size and color mode of the graphics screen.
The range of values ​​of the active page pa with actual screen size and color mode of the graphics screen:
    1024 × 1024 (16-color mode) 	... 0
    512 × 512 (16-color mode) 	        ... 0-3
    512 × 512 (256-color mode) 	        ... 0,1
    512 × 512 (65536-color mode) 	... 0
home , screen , Vpage , window
Use cases:


Standard function
Written expressions:asc(st)
Return value:int
Function:Returns the character code of the first character of the string st.
st will return 0 if the character is null.
Refer to the “character code table” for the correspondence between characters and character codes.
CHR $ , “character code table”
Use cases:


Standard function
Written formula:atan(n)
Return value:float
Function:Returns the inverse tangent of the numerical value n (arc tangent).
Returns the value from -π / 2 to π / 2.
Use cases:


Standard function
Written expressions:atof(st)
Return value:float
Function:Converts the string st to float type number. st is a sequence of characters (+、-、0~9、.、e、E) that can be converted to a float type number. The conversion is not performed if there is a character for which the float value can not be determined.
The space or tab characters of st at the beginning will be ignored. In addition, there must be at least one or more digits before and after the decimal point. In addition, it must have at least one or more digits behind the e or E for exponential representation.
st can not be null character.
The following format of st string can not be converted:
[Whitespace] [sign] [.digits] [e or E [sign] digits]
ECVT , fcvt , gcvt
whitespace Space or tab characters are ignored.
sign “+” or “-”
digits Decimal numbers which consist of 1 or more, and don't have anything in front of the decimal point, require at least one number behind the decimal point.
index Index consists of “e” or “E” and decimal numbers with a sign.


Standard function
Written expressions:atoi(st)
Return value:int
Function:Converts st string to int type number. st is a sequence of characters that can be converted (0~9, +, -) to int type number. The conversion is aborted if there is a character for which the int type value can not be determined.
Space or tab characters at the begining of st will be ignored. st also requires at least one or more digits.
st can not be null character.
st string of the following format can be converted:
[whitespace] [sign] digits
whitespace Space or tab characters are ignored.
sign “+” or “-”
digits One or more decimal digits.


Written expressions:auto [line number] [incremental]
Function:Automatically genetares line number at the beginning of each program line.
You can omit the incremental switch but in that case lines will automatically increment by 10
If a line number overlaps with existing line, the contents of the line will be displayed. In this case you can press return key without typing anything and it will not change the contents of the line.
Press BREAK key (or CTRL+C) to release the auto function. The current program line will not be saved.
For example:
auto line numbers will begin with 10, 20, 30 (the same as auto 10,10)
auto 100 line numbers will begin with 100, 110, 120
auto ,5 line numbers will begin with 10, 15, 20


Written expressions:a_play(na,sf,md[,lng])
Argument:Numeric one-dimensional array name (na),char(sf,md,lng)
Return value:void
Function:Plays PCM data of specified na array.
na … Number of one-dimensional array name that contains the PCM data.
sf … sampling frequency
0 ... 3.9KHz
1 ... 5.2KHz
2 ... 7.8KHz
3 ... 10.4KHz
4 ... 15.6KHz
As a general rule, use the same sampling frequency sf for playback and when recording with a_rec function, if you want to play music. The sound will not play normally if other frequencies are used.
md … audio output mode (audio signal output mode from the audio output terminal of the computer)
0 ... silence
1 ... left channel
2 ... right channel
3 ... stereo output
lng … length from 0 index of na array to play
Values that can be used as lng are from 1 to subscript+1 of the declared na array.
All PCM data will be played if lng is omitted.
Use cases:
 x68000/x-basic.txt · Last modified: 2014/12/14 02:49 by eidis
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